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Journal of Conservation Science 2010;26(4):445-458.
Published online December 20, 2010.
금산사미륵전 외벽화 보존처리된 벽체의 분석 연구
한경순, 이상진, 이화수
A Study on the Analysis of Outside Mural Paintings treated in Maitreya Hall of Geumsan-sa Buddhist Temple, Korea
Kyeong-soon Han, Sang-Jin Lee, Haw-soo Lee
초 록
1993년에 해체 및 보존 처리된 금산사미륵전 벽화는 현재 박락과 균열, 박리와 같은 심각한 손상이 진행된 것으로 조사되었다. 금번 분석조사는 향후 진행될 금산사 미륵전 벽화 보존처리를 위하여 과거에 처리된 벽체의 재료적 특성을 파악하기위해 진행되었다. 손상이 가장 심한 남측 벽의 벽체를 대상으로 하였으며 시료는 남측 2층 외벽의 불벽과 포벽화의 마감벽, 중벽, 배면 보강부의에서 박락된 벽체시료를 채취하여 미세구조와 화학성분 , 결정상, 그리고 입도분포를 중심으로 분석하였다. 분석결과, 불벽과 포벽의 마감벽은 유사한 풍화토를 사용하였고 중벽 또한 유사한 모래와 풍화토를 사용하였으며 비교적 균일한 크기와 모양의 광물 입자들의 집합체로 구성되어 있으나, 과거 보존처리 과정에서 벽체의 보강을 위해 사용한 아크릴 계열의 경화제의 영향으로 광물 입자들이 응집되어 매우 단단한 응결체 (aggregate)를 형성하고 있는 것으로 확인되었다. 벽체의 배면 1차 보강층과 배면 2차 보강층은 석고(CaSO4 · 2H2O)가 주 결정상인 것으로 분석되었으며, 모래와 점토광물이 소량 함유되어 있는 것으로 판단된다. 향후 보존처리는 부분적으로 경화된 벽체후면에 대한 조치와 1, 2차보강층의 제거가 우선적으로 진행되어야 한다.
중심어: 벽체보강, 풍화토, 아크릴수지, 응결체, 석고 (CaSO4·2H2O)
The deterioration and structural damage such as exfoliation, cracks, and separation of painted layer on the wall paintings of Maitreya Hall in Geumsan-sa temple have been accelerated since it was re-positioned to the original place after the dismantling from the building in 1993. The examination of which result and analysis described in this study, is a preliminary survey for establishing conservation plan of the wall paintings. It aimed at the understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials applied in the 1993 conservation. The research focused on the south walls which displayed the worst condition compared to other walls. Samples for the examination for the understanding of micro-structure, chemical composition, cristalisation, and particle distribution, were collected for finishing, middle, and consolidated layers of the walls between pillars and the ones between brackets. Those samples were collected from separated fragments of the walls. The sample analysis displayed that: 1. the 1993 conservation used the similar type of weathered soil as the original for the finishing layer, and such soil and sand for the middle layer; 2. those walls are composed of a group of mineral particles which are relatively equal in size and shape and in their distribution;3. the mineral particles were cohered forming solid aggregate due to the application of acrylic resin for the reinforcement on the wall. The main composition of crystalisation on the first and the second reinforcement layers of the back walls were lime plaster (CaSO4 · 2H2O). The overall examination confirmed that the priority of the future conservation treatment should be given to the removal of the first and the second layers of reinforcement and the treatment on the back walls which were partially consolidated.
Key Words: Wall reinforcement, Weathered soil, Acrylic resin, Aggregate, Lime plaster(CaSO4 · 2H2O)

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