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Journal of Conservation Science 2006;18(0):33-50.
Published online March 21, 2006.
영산강유역 출토 철기유물의 미세조직 분석
이재성, 김수기
Metallurgical Analysis of Iron Artifacts Excavated from the Yeongsan River Basin
Jae-sung Lee, Soo-ki Kim
초 록
영산강유역이라는 지역적 연계성을 가진 영광 군동, 무안 인평고분군, 무안 구산리고분군, 함평 국산유적에서 출토된 유물 중 백제식 묘제인 횡혈식석실분 출현 이전으로 편년되는 철기유물 6점을 선정하여 미세조직을 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 고대 영산강유역에서는 저온환원법에 의해 괴련철을 생산하는 기술이 주를 이루고 있었으며, 아울러 탄소를 제거시켜 강소재를 생산하는 기술체계가 이루어졌을 가능성도 확인되었다. 또한 강도를 필요로 하는 부위에만 담금질을 함으로써 높은 강도를 가짐과 동시에 담금질 조직이 가지는 취성을 담금질이 안된 부위에 분산시켜 철기가 깨지는 것을 방지하고 인성을 부여하는 기술이 이루어지고 있었다고 생각된다. 이러한 기술은 2세기대로 편년되는 영광 군동 출토 철부 미세구조에서 확인되고 있어 높은 기술체계를 가진 집단이 2세기 이전에 존재하고 있었고 5세기 말까지 이어졌을 가능성이 높다고 판단된다. 낮은 탄소함량의 괴련철로 철기를 제작하는 경우 성형-침탄-열처리-단타를 반복적으로 행하는 제작 공정이 이루어진 것으로 보인다.
중심어: 영산강유역, 철기, 미세구조, 철기제작 기술체계
ABSTRACT
Around Yeongsan river basin, there are Yeongkwang Gundong, Muan Inpyeong Tombs, Muu Gusan-ri Tombs and Hampyeong Guksan remain from which a lot of iron artifacts were excavated. Among them, 6 iron artifacts were chosen, and their microstructures were analyzed. As a result, Iron artifacts were produced sponge iron by the low temperature reduction process and a part of microstructure have the possibility that steel made by decarburizing. And also, by tempering the parts which need high strength, the iron artifacts had high strength and by distributing the weakness of the tempered structure to the nearby untempered parts, their breaking was prevented and they had the durability. These skills were used then. Especially these skills were found to be used in the 2nd century by high skilled people because an iron axe excavated at Yeongkwang Gundong of 2nd century by the historical record showed that the skill was used. Also microstructures were found to show the possibility that the iron technology was inherited to the late 5th century. When producing iron artifacts made of sponge iron containing small amount of carbon, that was made by the production process repeating molding, carburizing, heat treatment and hammering.
Key Words: youngsan river basin, iron artifact, microstructure, iron technology


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